Using Credentials

Using credentials with NetExec

Using Credentials

Every protocol supports using credentials in one form or another. For details on using credentials with a specific protocol, see the appropriate wiki section.

Generally speaking, to use credentials, you can run the following commands:

netexec <protocol> <target(s)> -u username -p password

Code execution results in a (Pwn3d!) added after the login confirmation. With SMB protocol, most likely your compromised users are in the local administrators group.

ProtocolSee Pwn3d! in output

FTP

No check

SSH

WINRM

LDAP

SMB

RDP

VNC

WMI

When using usernames or passwords that contain special symbols (especially exclaimation points!), wrap them in single quotes to make your shell interpret them as a string.

Example:

netexec <protocol> <target(s)> -u username -p 'October2022!'

Due to a bug in Python's argument parsing library, credentials beginning with a dash (-) will throw an expected at least one argument error message. To get around this, specify the credentials by using the 'long' argument format (note the = sign):

netexec <protocol> <target(s)> -u='-username' -p='-October2022'

Using a Credential Set From the Database

By specifying a credential ID (or multiple credential IDs) with the -id flag nxc will automatically pull that credential from the back-end database and use it to authenticate (saves a lot of typing):

netexec <protocol> <target(s)> -id <cred ID(s)>

Multi-Domain Environment

You can use nxc with mulitple domain environment

netexec <protocol> <target(s)> -u FILE -p password

Where FILE is a file with usernames in this format

DOMAIN1\user
DOMAIN2\user

Brute Forcing & Password Spraying

All protocols support brute-forcing and password spraying. For details on brute-forcing/password spraying with a specific protocol, see the appropriate wiki section.

By specifying a file or multiple values nxc will automatically brute-force logins for all targets using the specified protocol:

Examples:

netexec <protocol> <target(s)> -u username1 -p password1 password2
netexec <protocol> <target(s)> -u username1 username2 -p password1
netexec <protocol> <target(s)> -u ~/file_containing_usernames -p ~/file_containing_passwords
netexec <protocol> <target(s)> -u ~/file_containing_usernames -H ~/file_containing_ntlm_hashes

Password Spraying Without Bruteforce

Can be usefull for protocols like WinRM and MSSQL. This option avoid the bruteforce when you use files (-u file -p file)

netexec <protocol> <target(s)> -u ~/file_containing_usernames -H ~/file_containing_ntlm_hashes --no-bruteforce
netexec <protocol> <target(s)> -u ~/file_containing_usernames -p ~/file_containing_passwords --no-bruteforce
user1 -> pass1
user2 -> pass2

By default nxc will exit after a successful login is found. Using the --continue-on-success flag will continue spraying even after a valid password is found. Usefull for spraying a single password against a large user list.

netexec <protocol> <target(s)> -u ~/file_containing_usernames -H ~/file_containing_ntlm_hashes --no-bruteforce --continue-on-success

Throttling Authentication Requests

Authentication throttling works on a per-host basis! Keep this in mind if you are spraying credentials against multiple hosts.

If there is a need to throttle authentications during brute forcing, you can use the jitter functionality. The length of the timeout (in seconds) between requests is randomly selected from an interval unless otherwise specified. If you want to hardcode the timeout, set the upper and lower bounds of the interval to the same value. The syntax is as follows:

netexec --jitter 3 <protocol> <target> -u ~/file_containing_usernames -p ~/file_containing_passwords
netexec --jitter 2-5 <protocol> <target> -u ~/file_containing_usernames -p ~/file_containing_passwords
netexec --jitter 4-4 <protocol> <target> -u ~/file_containing_usernames -p ~/file_containing_passwords

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